A systemic approach and multiscale data management. A ‘refrigerator’ case study
Keywords:systemic design, sustainability, digital technologies, requirements, circular economy
Many digital technologies, such as the Internet of Things, Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning, could radically change the way of conceiving a design process, especially when they are used to retrieve essential information to define a problem, identify the requirements and support design decisions, all of which are typical of the pre-design phase. In this essay, we reflect on the complexity of designing, on the need for a systemic approach based on participatory methods and on the use of prototypes as tools to unlock the potential, albeit still largely untapped, use of data for design purposes. An experiment has been conducted on a refrigerator and conclusions have been drawn on future visions, methodological aspects in the field of systemic design and the relationship between data and sustainability.
Berente, N., Hansen, S. and Lyytinen, K. (2009), “High Impact Design Requirements – Key Design Challenges for the Next Decade”, in Lyytinen, K., Loucopoulos, P., Mylopoulos, J. and Robinson, B. (eds), Design Requirements Engineering – A Ten-Year Perspective, Springer, Heidelberg, pp. 01-10.
Bergman, M. (2009), “Requirements’ Role in Mobilizing and Enabling Design Conversation”, in Lyytinen, K., Loucopoulos, P., Mylopoulos, J. and Robinson, B. (eds) (2009), Design Requirements Engineering – A Ten-Year Perspective, Springer, Heidelberg, pp. 44-87.
Bistagnino, L. (2016), Systemic Design – Designing the production and environmental sustainability, Slow Food Editore, Bra (CN).
Carter, C. (2016), Let’s stop talking about THE design process. [Online] Available at: medium.com/stanford-d-school/lets-stop-talking-about-the-design-process-7446e52c13e8 [Accessed 3 March 2020].
Cheng, B. H. C. and Atlee, J. M. (2009), “Current and Future Research Directions in Requirements Engineering”, in Lyytinen, K., Loucopoulos, P., Mylopoulos, J. and Robinson, B. (eds), Design Requirements Engineering – A Ten-Year Perspective, Springer, Heidelberg, pp. 11-43.
Ciribini, G. (1984), Tecnologia e progetto – Argomenti di cultura tecnologica della progettazione, Celid, Torino.
Conley, C. (2004), “Where are the design methodologists?”, in Visible Language, vol. 38, n. 2, pp. 196-215.
Cross, N. (2008), Engineering Design Methods – Strategies for Product Design, 4th edition, John Wiley and Sons, Chichester.
de Bont, C., den Ouden, E., Schifferstein, R., Smulders, F. and van der Voort, M. (eds) (2013), Advanced design methods for successful innovation – Recent methods from design research and design consultancy in the Netherlands, Design United, Den Haag. [Online] Available at: pure.tue.nl/ws/portalfiles/portal/3823843/568542308092309.pdf [Accessed 12 March 2020].
De Risi, P. (2001), Dizionario della qualità – 900 termini ed espressioni del linguaggio della Qualità, Il Sole 24 Ore, Milano.
Ellen MacArthur Foundation (2019), Artificial Intelligence and the Circular Economy – AI as a tool to accelerate the transition. [Online] Available at: www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/assets/downloads/Artificial-intelligence-and-the-circular-economy.pdf [Accessed 3 March 2020].
Germak, C. and De Giorgi, C. (2008), “Design dell’esplorazione (Exploring Design)”, in Germak, C. (ed.), Uomo al centro del Progetto – Design per un nuovo umanesimo | Man at the Centre of the Project – Design for a New Humanism, Umberto Allemandi and C., Torino, pp. 53-70.
Ghoreishi, M and Happonen, A. (2019), “Key Enablers for Deploying Artificial Intelligence for Circular Economy Embracing Sustainable Product Design: Three Case Studies”, in Proceedings of the International Engineering Research Conference – 13th EURECA 2019, AIP Publishing, pp. 1-17. [Online] Available at: www.researchgate.net/publication/337170902_Key_Enablers_for_ Deploying_Artificial_Intelligence_for_Circular_Economy_Embracing_ Sustainable_Product_Design_Three_Case_Studies/stats [Accessed 12 March 2020].
Gyger, C. (2018), Sense the AI revolution – How AI-powered 3D sensors boost in-store analytics. [Online] Available at: www.xovis.com/fileadmin/dam/documents/Xovis-white-paper-sense-the-AI-revolution.pdf [Accessed 15 March 2020].
Hansen, S., Berente, N. and Lyytinen, K. (2009), “Requirements in the 21st Century: Current Practice and Emerging Trends”, in Lyytinen, K., Loucopoulos, P., Mylopoulos, J. and Robinson, B. (eds), Design Requirements Engineering – A Ten-Year Perspective, Springer, Heidelberg, pp. 44-87.
Interana (2015), Creating a Design Driven Data Product. [Online] Available at: www.interana.com/blog/creating-a-design-driven-data-product [Accessed 17 March 2020].
Jonas, W. (2007), “Design Research and its Meaning to the Methodological Development of the Discipline”, in Michel, R. (ed.), Design Research Now – Essays and Selected Projects, Birkhauser, Basel, pp. 187-206. [Online] Available at: campus.burg-halle.de/id-neuwerk/24-short-films-about-design/wp-content/uploads/sites/31/2014/05/design-research-now.pdf [Accessed 12 March 2020].
Jones, J. C. (1977), “How my Thoughts about Design Methods Have Changed during the Years”, in Design Methods and Theories, vol. 11, n. 1, pp. 48-62.
Kanellos, M. (2016), Hold the Laughter – Why the Smart Fridge Is A Great Idea. [Online] Available at: www.forbes.com/sites/michaelkanellos/2016/01/13/hold-the-laughter-why-the-smart-fridge-is-a-great-idea/#59db737d7d40 [Accessed 15 March 2020].
Lyytinen, K., Loucopoulos, P., Mylopoulos, J. and Robinson, B. (eds) (2009), Design Requirements Engineering – A Ten-Year Perspective, Springer, Heidelberg.
Mink, A. (2016), Designing for Well-Being – An Approach for Understanding Users’ Lives in Design for Development, Doctoral Thesis – Delft University of Technology, Delft Academic Press. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.4233/uuid:264107d4-30bc-414c-b1d4-34f48aeda6d8 [Accessed 15 March 2020].
Norman, D. A. and Stappers, P. J. (2016), “DesignX: Complex Sociotechnical Systems”, in She Ji – The Journal of Design, Economics, and Innovation, vol. 1, issue 2, pp. 83-106. [Online] Available at: dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sheji.2016.01.002 [Accessed 4 March 2020].
Potting, J., Hekkert, M., Worrell, E. and Hanemaaijer, A. (2017), Circular Economy – Measuring Innovation in the Product Chain, Policy Report, PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, The Hague. [Online] Available at: www.pbl.nl/sites/default/files/cms/publicaties/pbl-2016-circular-economy-measuring-innovation-in-product-chains-2544.pdf [Accessed 15 December 2019].
Ramadoss, T. S., Alam, H. and Seeram, R. (2018), “Artificial Intelligence and Internet of Things enabled Circular Economy”, in The International Journal of Engineering and Science, vol. 7, issue 9, pp. 55-63. [Online] Available at: www.theijes.com/papers/vol7-issue9/Version-3/I0709035563.pdf [Accessed 4 March 2020].
Sanders, E. B.-N. and Stappers, P. J. (2008), “Co-creation and the new landscapes of design”, in CoDesign, vol. 4, issue 1, pp. 5-18. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1080/15710880701875068 [Accessed 4 March 2020].
Sonetti, G., Naboni, E. and Brown, M. (2018), “Exploring the Potentials of ICT Tools for Human-Centric Regenerative Design”, in Sustainability, vol. 10, issue 4, article 1217, pp. 1-14. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.3390/su10041217 [Accessed 18 February 2020].
Vinuesa, R., Azizpour, H., Leite, I., Balaam, M., Dignum, V., Domish, S., Felländer, A., Langhans, S. D., Tegmark, M. and Fuso Neri, F. (2020), “The role of artificial intelligence in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals”, in Nature Communications, vol. 11, article 233, pp. 1-10. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-14108-y [Accessed 4 March 2020].
Westerlund, B. and Wetter-Edman, K. (2017), “Dealing with wicked problems, in messy contexts, through prototyping”, in The Design Journal, vol. 20, issue sup1, pp. S886-S899. [Online] Available at: doi.org/10.1080/14606925.2017.1353034 [Accessed 4 March 2020].
How to Cite
This Journal is published under Creative Commons Attribution Licence 4.0 (CC-BY).
License scheme | Legal code
This License allows anyone to:
Share: copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format.
Adapt: remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially.
Under the following terms
Attribution: Users must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made; users may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses them or their use.
No additional restrictions: Users may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.
Users do not have to comply with the license for elements of the material in the public domain or where your use is permitted by an applicable exception or limitation.
No warranties are given. The license may not give users all of the permissions necessary for their intended use. For example, other rights such as publicity, privacy, or moral rights may limit how you use the material.