Coastal floods in the Mediterranean. Trasformation strategies for resilient cities


  • Carmela Mariano 'Sapienza' University of Roma
  • Marsia Marino 'Sapienza' University of Roma



climate change, sea-level rise, adaptation strategies, urban resilience, ecological functionality


The IPCC 2018 report represents the current state of knowledge on climate change and its potential environmental and socio-economic impacts. One of the most direct consequences of these changes is represented by the raising of the sea-level, the topic on which the contribution lingers, highlighting how, to date, there is no declination, at the local planning level, of the content addresses in the sectoral tools responsible for managing the phenomenon. The contribution, starting from the results of a recent ENEA research, explores the territorial context of the Mediterranean, specifically the Italian area, to bring out some methodological and operational suggestions for the elaboration of some possible strategies for transforming urban contexts affected by flooding.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Metrics Graph

Author Biographies

Carmela Mariano, 'Sapienza' University of Roma

Associate Professor in Urban Planning at the Department of Pianificazione, Design e Tecnologia dell’Architettura (PDTA). She is the President of the CdLm in ‘Architettura – Rigenerazione Urbana’, and a Member of the Academic Board of the PhD Program ‘Pianificazione, Design e Tecnologia dell’Architettura’ – PDTA Department.

Marsia Marino, 'Sapienza' University of Roma

Architect, she is a PhD student in ‘Pianificazione, Design e Tecnologia dell’Architettura’ at the PDTA Department. She is carrying out research on the management of coastal cities subjected to flooding due to sea-level rise.


Antonioli, F., Anzidei, M., Amorosi, A., Lo Presti, V., Mastronuzzi, G., Deiana, G., De Falco, G., Fontana, A., Fontolan, G., Lisco, S., Marsico, A., Moretti, M., Orrù, P. E., Sannino, G. M., Serpelloni, E. and Vecchio, A. (2017), “Sea-level rise and potential drowning of the Italian coastal plains: Flooding risk scenarios for 2100”, in Quaternary Science Reviews, vol. 158, pp. 29-43. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 10 September 2019].

Antonioli, F., Anzidei, M. K., Lambeck, K., Auriemma, R., Gaddi, D., Furlani, S., Orrù, P., Solinas, E., Gaspari, A., Karinja, S., Kovačić, V. and Surace, L. (2007), “Sea-level change during Holocene in Sardinia and in the northeastern Adriatic (Central Mediterranean Sea) from archaeological and geomorphological data”, in Quaternary Science Reviews, vol. 26, issue 19-21, pp. 2463-2486. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 9 September 2019].

Anzidei, M., Antonioli, F., Lambeck, K., Benini, A. and Soussi, M. (2011), “New insights on the relative sea level change during Holocene along the coasts of Tunisia and western Libya from archaeological and geomorphological markers”, in Quaternary International, vol. 232, issue 1-2, pp. 5-12. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 28 July 2019].

Anzidei, M., Bosman, A., Carluccio, R., Casalbore, D., D’Ajello Caracciolo, F., Esposito, A., Nicolosi, I., Pietrantonio, G., Vecchio, A., Carmisciano, C., Chiappini, M., Chiocci, F. L., Muccini, F. and Sepe, V. (2016), “Flooding scenarios due to land subsidence and sea-level rise: a case study for Lipary Island (Italy)”, in Terra Nova, vol. 29, issue 1, pp. 44-51. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 26 September 2019].

Aucelli, P. P. C., Di Paola, G., Incontri, P., Rizzo, A., Vilardo, G., Benassi, G., Buonocore, B. and Pappone, G. (2016), “Coastal inundation risk assessment due to subsidence and sea level rise in a Mediterranean alluvial plain (Volturno coastal plain – southern Italy)”, in Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, vol. 198, part B, pp. 597-609. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 31 July 2019].

Carta, M. (2017), The Augmented City – A paradigm shift, LIStLab.

Crutzen, P. (2005), Benvenuti nell’Antropocene – L’uomo ha cambiato il clima, la Terra entra in una nuova era, Mondadori, Milano.

Distretto Idrografico delle Alpi Orientali (2017), PGRA 2021-2027. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 10 October 2019].

European Commission (2007), State aid control and regeneration of deprived urban areas – Vademecum. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 12 April 2019].

Gasparrini, C. (2017), “Una buona urbanistica per convivere con i rischi”, in Urbanistica, n. 159, pp. 4-9. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 23 April 2019].

Gunderson, L. H. and Holling, C. S. (2002), Panarchy – Understanding Transformations in Human and Natural Systems, Island Press, Washington-Covelo-London.

IPCC – Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2018), Global Warming of 1.5 °C – Summary for Policymakers, IPCC, Switzerland. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 3 September 2019].

IPCC – Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2013), Climate change 2013 – The Physical Science Basis. Summary for Policymakers, IPCC, Switzerland. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 5 November 2018].

IPCC – Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2007), Climate Change 2007 Synthesis Report. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 3 October 2019].

Lambeck, K., Antonioli, F., Anzidei, M., Ferranti, L., Leoni, G., Scicchitano, G. and Silenzi, S. (2011), “Sea level change along Italian coast during the Holocene and projections for the future”, in Quateranry International, vol. 232, issue 1-2, pp. 250-257. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 04 November 2019].

Mariano, C. and Marino, M. (2019), “Defense, adaptation and relocation. Three strategies for urban planning of coastal areas at risk of flooding”, in Gargiulo, C. and Zoppi, C. (eds), Planning, Nature and Ecosystem Services, FedOA Press, Napoli, pp. 704-713. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 04 November 2019].

Musco, F. and Zanchini, E. (2014), Il clima cambia le città – Strategie di adattamento e mitigazione nella pianificazione urbanistica, Franco Angeli, Milano.

Rahmstorf, S. (2007), “A semi-empirical approach to projecting future sea-level rise”, in Science, vol. 315, pp. 368-370. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 12 August 2019].

Snoussi, M., Ouchani, T. and Niazi, S. (2008), “Vulnerability assessment of the impact of sea-level rise and flooding on the Maroccan coast: the case of the Mediterranean eastern zone in Estuar. Coast”, in Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, vol. 77, issue 2, pp. 206-213. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 20 October 2019].

Sterr, H., Klein, R. J. T. and Reese, S. (2003), “Climate Change and Costal Zone: an Overview of the State-of the-art on Regional and Local Vulnerability Assessment”, in Carraro, C. (ed.), Climate Change and the Mediterranean – Socio-economics of Impacts, Vulnerability and Adaptation, Edwadr Elgar Publishing, pp. 1-24. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 20 October 2019].

UN – United Nations (2017), The New Urban Agenda – with subject index, United Nations Conference on Housing and Sustainable Urban Development (Habitat III), Quito, Ecuador, 17-20 October 2016, United Nations. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 12 September 2019].

UNFCCC – UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (2015), Paris Agreement. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 11 September 2019].

UNISDR – UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (2012), How to make cities resilient – A Handbook for Local Government Leaders – A contribution to the Global Campaign 2010-2015, United Nations, Geneva. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 13 September 2019].

PGRA Eastern Alps District: map excerpt (quadrant O 08) with indication of water height, return time 30 years. AGATHÓN | 06 | 2019




How to Cite

Mariano, C. and Marino, M. (2019) “Coastal floods in the Mediterranean. Trasformation strategies for resilient cities”, AGATHÓN | International Journal of Architecture, Art and Design, 6(online), pp. 104–113. doi: 10.19229/2464-9309/6102019.



Architecture | Research & Experimentation

Urban micro-forestry for climate adaptation in the smaller ports of the mid-Adriatic sea

Roberta Cocci Grifoni, Timothy D. Brownlee, Graziano Enzo Marchesani, Maria Federica Ottone

#mycityoftomorrow. A think tank on cities and territories of tomorrow

Francesco Alberti, Stefania Cupillari, Eleonora Giannini, Sara Naldoni, Lorenzo Nofroni

New technologies for future living. A proposal for 2100s Milan

Paola Marrone, Claudio Piferi, Antonello Monsù Scolaro, Elisa Belardi, Manuela Demurtas, Maria...

Influence of the urban vegetation on thermal dissipation and gaseous pollutants

Teresa Milagros Defilippi Shinzato, Alexis Dueñas, Julián Ccasani, Vanessa García, Gianinna Morales